The lungs and the eyes absorb nerve agents rapidly. It is considered a legitimate mode of warfare to fill shells with molten metal which scatters among the enemy, and produced the most frightful modes of death. These chemicals were manufactured in large quantities by the turn of the century and were deployed as weapons during the protracted period of trench warfare.
The first large-scale attack with chlorine gas occurred April 22nd at Ieper in Belgium. A further problem for almost every country is the presence in most urban centres of storage or manufacturing facilities that contain toxic industrial chemicals and other toxic materials.
Earliest symptoms include burning pain, a feeling that something is in the eye, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. There are also medical antidotes which can be taken preventively. It has a high vapor pressure and its odor is very unpleasant and irritating.
The use of poisonous chemicals from plant extracts to poison individuals is widely documented throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, but it was not until the expansion of industrial chemistry in the 19th century that mass production and deployment of CW agents in war became a possibility.
Vapors can be affected by winds. Next In a incident, members of Aum Shinrikyo released sarin GB at a Tokyo subway, killing 12 people and injuring many more 1. Two years later, the same battlefields saw the first deployment of sulfur mustard. The figure shows that the lethal dose for the most sensitive individuals is about 70 mg.
Prolonged wearing of individual protective equipment can lead to stress, fatigue, disorientation, confusion, frustration, and irritability.
The carbamylated enzyme hydrolyzes slowly with a half-life of about 30 minutes. On contact, pain and blepharospasm occur instantly. Mustards penetrate cells in less than 2 minutes, yet signs and symptoms usually are delayed hours the range can be from hours.
Since then, numerous fishermen have been burned accidentally while hauling leaking shells aboard boats. After witnessing the effects of such weapons in World War I, it appeared that few countries wanted to be the first to introduce even deadlier chemical weapons onto the World War II battlefields.
For example, atropine shots can be injected to fight the effects of nerve gas exposures, and different medicines are available to treat casualties. L is a vesicant blister agentalso, it acts as a systemic poison, causing pulmonary edema, diarrhea, restlessness, weakness, subnormal temperature, and low blood pressure.
Defense against chemical weapons On the battlefield Since World War I the military organizations of all the great powers have acquired defensive equipment to cope with emerging offensive chemical weapons. The devastating impact chemical weapons have had in the past, and the potential for the use of modern—even more deadly—chemical agents not only by States at war but in other violent conflicts and by non-State actors, provide the imperative for the international effort to uphold the ban on such weapons and to work towards the complete, global elimination of chemical weapons.
But specific, well-established antidotes are available for nerve agent and cyanide exposures. During the acute phase, casualties may have minimal signs and symptoms and the prognosis should be guarded. Symptoms may begin anywhere from 30 minutes to 18 hours after skin exposure.
Phosgene is the most dangerous member of this group and the only one considered likely to be used in the future. Pretreatment with carbamate should be combined with oxime therapy the auto-injector after the poisoning in order to provide maximum effect.
The Mark I kit was designed for military self-administration in the field.
The pupil of the eye becomes contracted miosis which impairs night-vision. With exposure to very high concentrations death may occur within several hours; in most fatal cases pulmonary edema reaches a maximum in 12 hours followed by death in hours. This attack illustrates the one single characteristic of CW agents that allows them to be considered as WMD.
No laboratory tests are useful.The use of several different types of chemical weapons, including mustard gas (yperite), resulted in 90, deaths and over one million casualties during the war.
preparations were made by many countries to retaliate in kind should chemical weapons be used in warfare. and Iraq also used mustard gas and nerve agents against Kurdish.
Keywords: Blister agents, chemical warfare, decontamination, detection, mustards, nerve agents, protection Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind.
Chemical warfare is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive effects of chemical weapons are not primarily due to any explosive force.
Sampling and Analysis of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents: ” The mandate was to confirm if chemical weapons had been used, it was not to Figure 3 illustrates comparative toxicities of the chemical warfare agents, the position on the y-axis indicating median lethal concentration (LC t Chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNAs) are extremely toxic organophosphorus compounds that contain a chiral phosphorus center.
Undirected synthesis of G-type CWNAs produces stereoisomers of tabun, sarin, soman, and cyclosarin (GA, GB, GD, and GF, respectively). Generally considered the most deadly of the different categories of chemical weapons, nerve agents – in liquid or gas form - can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
Nerve agents inhibit the body’s respiratory and cardiovascular capability by causing severe damage to the central nervous system, and can result in death.Download